The powers of the Legislative Branch of the U.S. government are explained in Article I of the Constitution. Congress is the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The Senate at Work
Though a term in the Senate is six years, it isn’t unusual for congressmen to be re-elected numerous times. Senators work closely with constituents in their home state to determine what laws could be created or amended to improve their standard of living, and they collaborate with the House representatives within each district to secure funding for housing, schools, universities, hospitals, and infrastructure projects such as maintaining roads and bridges.
In the Senate, each state is represented equally with two votes. Congressional elections take place in even-numbered years, with one-third of the 100 senate seats up for election or re-election every two years.
The legislative process within the Senate is similar to that of the House of Representatives. When a new bill is passed from the House to the Senate, it is reviewed and negotiated within committees and subcommittees before being debated and eventually voted on.
Some of the standing, joint, and select committees in the Senate seem to parallel those in the House. Each Senate committee focuses on a specific part of the federal government, and besides passing legislation, committee members are also responsible for oversight of the agencies and programs within their jurisdiction, monitoring projects and activities and approving funding.
Senators can be contacted at one of their offices in their home state as well as in Washington. The DC offices of the Senate are located in the Dirksen, Russel, and Hart buildings on Constitution Avenue, north of the Capitol building.
The day-to-day leadership duties of the Senate are usually overseen by the President pro-tempore or else a Senator from the majority party, however, the President of the Senate steps in to cast a deciding vote on legislation in the event of a tie.
Powers of the Senate
Article I of the Constitution lists the duties of Congress, responsibilities that are shared by the House of Representatives and the Senate. But each of the chambers have their own exclusive powers:
- The Senate has the authority to “advise and consent” to the President’s nominees to positions within the Supreme Court, the cabinet, ambassadors to foreign countries, and heads of federal agencies. This allows Congress to keep the influence of the executive branch in check
- When the House of Representatives brings impeachment charges against a government official for “treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors,” the Senate has to determine whether to charge the individual and remove them from office
- During an election year, in the event of a tie in the Electoral College, the Senate has to choose the Vice Presidential candidate closest to receiving the majority of votes